^ Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, Gunasekaran N, Karl T, Long LE, Huang XF, Liu K, Arnold JC, McGregor IS (November 2011). "Cannabidiol potentiates Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats". Psychopharmacology. 218 (2): 443–457. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2342-0. PMID 21667074.

The theoretical logic is there, Gerdeman says. What exactly is that thinking? Well, there are a few different ways CBD could help regulate pain—by increasing your natural endocannabinoids, decreasing your inflammatory response, and desensitizing your pain receptors (although it’s still unclear whether this stands when absorbed topically compared to orally).
Recently, CNBC Make It profiled the New York City bar, Adriaen Block, where customers can choose from an entire menu of CBD-infused cocktails and food items, like a cheeseburger with CBD-infused sauce. (This reporter sampled the restaurant's CBD-infused menu items, which were tasty — the CBD oil did not overpower — and I did feel a bit relaxed afterward, though the alcohol could have played a role in that.)
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[44] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[45] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[46] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[47] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[48][49][50]
CBD Oil, derived from agricultural hemp, has been widely recognized for its many benefits on human health. It has grown in popularity amongst the medical community as a key supplement for maintaining homeostasis. Because CBD oil has the ability to talk to nearly every organ system in the body via the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) this plant-based nutrient plays a key role in optimizing balance and enhancing quality of life.
Cannabis, on the other hand, was grown for many generations for medical and recreational purposes, so the genetic aspects of the plant that have survived and evolved are different. The cannabinoids, terpenes, and strength of the different parts of the plant have been bred to induce different effects in people or help solve medical issues, whether skin conditions, epilepsy, or others.
In just a few years, cannabidiol (CBD) has become immensely popular around the world. After initially being discovered as an effective self-medication for Dravet syndrome in children, CBD is now sold and used to treat a wide range of medical conditions and lifestyle diseases. The cannabinoid CBD, a non-psychoactive isomer of the more infamous tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is available in a growing number of administration modes, but the most commonly known is CBD oil. There are currently dozens, if not hundreds, of producers and sellers of CBD oils active in the market, and their number is increasing rapidly. Those involved vary from individuals who prepare oils on a small scale for family and (Facebook) friends to compounding pharmacies, pharmaceutical companies, and licensed cannabis producers. Despite the growing availability of CBD, many uncertainties remain about the legality, quality, and safety of this new “miracle cure.” As a result, CBD is under scrutiny on many levels, ranging from national health organizations and agricultural lobbyists to the WHO and FDA. The central question is whether CBD is simply a food supplement, an investigational new medicine, or even a narcotic. This overview paper looks into the known risks and issues related to the composition of CBD products, and makes recommendations for better regulatory control based on accurate labeling and more scientifically supported health claims. The intention of this paper is to create a better understanding of the benefits versus the risks of the current way CBD products are produced, used, and advertised.
Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop. Some growers in the U.S. succeeded in lowering the proportion of CBD-to-THC to accommodate customers who preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to the higher THC and lower CBD content.[58] Hemp is classified as any part of the cannabis plant containing no more than 0.3% THC in dry weight form (not liquid or extracted form).[59]
Again, the more studies and medical research that focus on CBD, the more will be known about its side effects and potential medical benefits. For what it's worth, in December 2017, the World Health Organization declared in a report that "cannabidiol does not appear to have abuse potential or cause harm." The WHO also noted that CBD could have "therapeutic value" for epileptic seizures, but that further study is warranted to determine CBD's potential medical use.
Increasingly, CBD oil is also being promoted as a prophylactic treatment in order to prevent certain diseases from developing at all. The argument used is that the human endocannabinoid system is involved in basic life functions such as appetite, immune response, reproduction, and pain management [20]. Because CBD functions as an indirect antagonist to human CB1 and CB2 receptors [21], it is reasoned that the presence of CBD prevents them from being overly activated, thereby protecting the nervous and immune systems from everyday stress. Furthermore, CBD is known to be a reasonably potent antioxidant, which further helps to protect against stressful influences [22]. Although this clearly increases the market for CBD products, it also further erodes the scientific basis for the therapeutic use of CBD. After all, it is hard to prove scientifically that a disease was prevented by the use of a health-promoting product.
Although a range of analytical methods have been published in recent years [48], there is no general agreement on which analytical method is most suitable and accurate. Additionally, there are currently no generally accepted guidelines or certifications to determine the qualifications of cannabis labs. As a result, cannabinoid analysis can differ significantly between labs [49], even when the exact same sample is analyzed multiple times [50]. This not only poses a risk to consumers (who do not know how trust the label on their product) but may also lead to business-to-business conflicts about the quality or value of intermediate products. Additionally, inaccurate analytical results may lead to legal problems if the THC content of a CBD product unexpectedly turns out to be higher than the maximally allowed limit. It seems clear that a better agreement on the conditions for lab testing of cannabinoids is urgently needed.
According to West, who says her team is “drawing on a wealth of anecdotal evidence,” CBD in your java can really take the edge off. “My colleagues, friends, and I have found that CBD-infused coffee largely does away with the anxiety and acid belly typically associated with coffee,” she says. “That makes sense, because research suggests CBD has anti-anxiety and [anti-nausea] effects. We’ve also found that compared to the coffee we reach for regularly, testers experience a less jittery, elevated burst of energy after drinking CBD-infused coffee.”
…..i have an aggressive form of heart disease (atherosclerosis) and my on-line research into medical marijuana has uncovered that there are 2 main forms of canabidiol, CBD 1 and CBD 2. Current research is indicating that CBD 1 promotes the growth of arterial plaque while CBD 2 inhibits this growth. Thus, I would like to use a strain that is high in THC and high in CBD 2 with no CBD 1. Is there anything out there with this combination (THC/CBD2) ?? Thanks !!

Dry mouth: As is the case with many other hemp- and marijuana-based products, CBD oil often leads to a condition known as dry mouth (or cottonmouth). This is likely due to cannabinoids altering receptors in the lower jaw that trigger salivation. In most cases, mild discomfort and stronger-than-average thirst are the only issues associated with dry mouth.
PTSD. My husband suffers chronic PTSD from active military service. We live not far from a large Army base and though my husband served with another counties military we hear stories constantly of family breakdowns over PTSD. It’s not a easy path but I’m hoping one day to find something to stop the endless trips to the psych ward. It’s just not right that those who serve come home to no government help.
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a phyto-cannabinoid found in cannabis plants. However, it does not cause the same psychoactive effects as other naturally occurring cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC). CBD induces feelings of sleepiness and tranquility, making it suitable for insomnia and other sleep disorders; CBD can be used to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy, diabetes, and anxiety disorders, as well. Legality is an issue for some; all 50 states have laws governing the sale, possession, and use of CBD, and they vary significantly (see the table below for a full analysis).

Inhibited liver function: The liver regulates the way different drugs are metabolized within the body; this process is known as hepatic drug metabolism. Higher-than-average doses of CBD oil can slow the hepatic drug metabolism process. As a result, users may not be able to process other drugs as quickly. This is particularly concerning for CBD oil users who also take prescription medications.


Today, CBD is used for the treatment of a wide range of medical conditions. This started with the somewhat serendipitous discovery (by parents experimenting with self-medication for their children) that CBD had a therapeutic effect on a serious form of epilepsy in children, called Dravet syndrome [8]. This effect is now under clinical investigation with the pharmaceutical CBD product Epidiolex®, which is currently in phase 3 trials with encouraging results [9, 10]. The media attention generated by its effect on severely ill children gave CBD the push needed to become a much desired medicine almost overnight [11]. Other medical indications that may be treated with CBD, and are supported to some extent by clinical proof, include Parkinson’s disease [12], schizophrenia [13], and anxiety disorder [14]. However, although research into the therapeutic effects of CBD is rapidly increasing, most current uses of CBD are not (yet) supported by clinical data. The popular use of these products means that physicians may be confronted with the effects of CBD oil even when they do not prescribe it themselves.

Cannabis has been used medicinally for centuries, as a sleep aid, a pain and nausea reducer, to relieve anxiety and other mood problems. In the mid-1960s, scientists identified the first cannabinoid. Since then, scientists have gone on to identify more than 80 individual cannabinoids and continue to investigate them for their potential symptom-relieving and disease-fighting abilities.
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Designed to provide the optimum absorption of CBD into the blood stream by employing a patented slow release delivery system. It’s well accepted that CBD is most effective when taken sublingualy, however most oils when taken in this way are swallowed and broken down by your body. The Gel-Tab™. is placed under the tongue and the CBD is slowly absorbed resulting in higher rates of CBD being absorbed than what would be achieved with a normal oil
Fad chasers looking for the next-next big thing may want to check out the CBD-infused ricotta-and-honey toast at Chillhouse, the Instagram-ready coffee shop, nail salon and massage studio on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. And then retreat to Inscape NYC, a meditation and relaxation studio in Chelsea, to unwind with a stress-busting CBD Saturday session.
Once applied to a targeted area, a CBD topical penetrates and affects the CB2 receptors. Topical applications absorbs into the skin slowly supplying medicine over a period of time. This means you can get all the healing effects of CBD during a longer timeframe. The CB2 receptors are throughout the body and will activate either naturally by the endocannabinoid system or from phytocannabinoids like CBD and THC. The active cannabinoids are absorbed into your skin to signal the receptors to provide relief.

I have a brother in law who has been diagnosed with cataplexy and narcoplexy, where he starts quivering and slowly loses control of his body and goes into a sleep, which causes him to drop to the ground with mild seizures while he is out. He lives alone (59 years old), but has smoked cannabis since he (we) were teenagers. He still smokes, and is on medication twice a day for this condition, but if he misses those meds by even half an hour, he is at risk of these seizures. The sad part is, these seizures are usually brought on by the smallest emotional change, usually tension, excitement or, the worst thing, if something he finds funny and is the least bit tickled about and starts to laugh, this process will immediately begin. Does anyone know if this kind of condition is treatable with cbd oil’s or concentrates? As I said, he smokes weed, and often grows his own, but he does it for the high and relaxation advantage, since he is basically home-bound due to this condition ending his work career about 4 years ago. Thanks for any replies. I’d be overjoyed if I could tell him there’s a possible solution to the problem other than his prescriptions. Or even if it worked WITH his meds to keep from having to live such a sedentary life.


Not only that, but the growing conditions for hemp aren’t federally regulated, which makes it very difficult to know when you’re getting a high quality, clean, and safe product. Knowing the growing conditions of the soil, overall environment, and extraction methods is going to be crucial when hemp-based CBD oils become legal, because it’s been known to absorb toxic spills, pesticides, and other dangerous chemicals that you don’t want to be ingesting.
Cannabidiol is currently a class B1 controlled drug in New Zealand under the Misuse of Drugs Act. It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In 2017 the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval. Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health.
That said, both Blessing and Carson warn that CBD should still be considered a drug, which means it can interact with other drugs. “CBD does interact with drugs that people are taking,” says Blessing. “So if you’re taking an opioid cough suppressant, or you’re taking serotonin-based medicine, like an SSRI, you can have strong drug interactions.” While most coffee shops are likely using doses too low to cause such interactions, Blessing says it’s something to be aware of. “If a coffee shop happened to have a way of making a product with a lot of CBD in it, then that could really interact with the medication this person is taking, and the effects they think are due to CBD could partly be due to that medication interaction,” she says.

As a healthcare professional I have realized over the years that most physicians and our healthcare system in general are all set up to focus almost entirely on symptoms and the disease state as a problem to treat, not prevent unfortunately. The training that most physicians receive is almost completely pharmacologicaly focused and consequently they treat patients almost as if they are a car to be fixed rather than as a living breathing being.
If the ECS is affected, or the body is not producing enough endocannabinoids, these functions in the body may become unbalanced. And when the body is not producing or regulating endocannabinoids properly, ingesting natural cannabinoids or applying them topically can restore this balance. CBD differs from THC in the sense that THC mimics the natural cannabinoids in the body and binds with the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which are found in abundance within the immune system, the gastrointestinal tract, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. While THC binds to these receptors, CBD interacts with an enzyme called FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase).4

Hey Yani- I’m up in WA and had acquired a topical oil made by a friend that worked wonders on angry joints. I know they started from leaf to create. I’m not capable of doing that and am wondering if you have recommendations for resources how to make my own salve from concentrate. I make my own coconut oil/essential oil mixtures already… I’m just not entirely certain where to started with adding in CBD/THC.
Be careful to check the nutritional info. On back of bottles. While some brands boast of high mg.s that is for the whole bottle. I use a brand that is 2 oz. 100 mg. Pet dose. A dose is 3 drops. I’ve seen some boast of 700 mg. Or more, but you read on back that a dose is 20 drops for 10 mg. Of help oil. That 700 is the whole 1oz. Bottle and cost twice what I pay for a 2 is bottle.

Ingesting — think CBD lattes, edibles, or just a drop of oil on the tongue — is likely much less effective than inhaling, says Blessing. When CBD-containing oil is ingested, it wants to join the other fat in your body; most of the CBD taken this way will just stay in that fat, inert and never getting to the brain. When inhaled, CBD bypasses the digestive system, which wants to store fat.
^ Nadulski T, Pragst F, Weinberg G, Roser P, Schnelle M, Fronk EM, Stadelmann AM (December 2005). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract". Ther Drug Monit. 27 (6): 799–810. PMID 16306858.
But, different parts of the cannabis sativa plant, like the flowers, leaves, and stalk, are governed instead by the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (ACMPR) and the Narcotic Control Regulations (NCR) instead, because its levels of THC and CBD are much higher. Hemp farmers must currently destroy the leaves and flowers in a safe way, but moving forward towards legalization will allow companies and farmers to use the full plant for its’ multiple purposes.
Right now, there’s a good chance that you don’t really know what you’re getting from any source. Testing and labeling rules vary by state, but many states that allow legal cannabis also require some kind of testing to verify that the THC and CBD levels listed on the label are accurate. However, this testing is controversial, and results can vary widely between labs, Jikomes said. A study published in March found measurable variations in test results, with some labs consistently reporting higher or lower levels of cannabinoids than others. There are no guarantees that the label accurately reflects what’s in the product. For a 2015 study published in JAMA, researchers tested 75 products purchased in San Francisco, Los Angeles and Seattle and found that only 17 percent were accurately labeled. More than half of the products contained significantly lower levels of cannabinoids than the label promised, and some of them contained only negligible amounts of the compounds. “We need to come up with ways to confidently verify the composition of cannabis products and make this information available to consumers,” Jikomes said.
There is certainly substantial anecdotal evidence that CBD can help treat anxiety, but the scientific evidence remains very limited, says Blessing. “Probably the best evidence comes from studies on anxiety giving speeches, comparing normal subjects, and those with social anxiety disorder,” she says. “The doses that were found to reduce anxiety when someone’s giving a public speech experimentally were[approximately] 300 mg.”
Hemp Extract Oil* and Hemp Oil are from a different Cannabis plant called Cannabis Sativa.  Hemp Extract is made from the entire plant including leaf, seed and stem.  Most oils on the market selling as C B D oil are 97% or more Hemp Seed Oil, mct oil or vegetable glycerine and 3% Hemp Extract. This does not contain THC and is legal in all 50 states.
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