Inhibited liver function: The liver regulates the way different drugs are metabolized within the body; this process is known as hepatic drug metabolism. Higher-than-average doses of CBD oil can slow the hepatic drug metabolism process. As a result, users may not be able to process other drugs as quickly. This is particularly concerning for CBD oil users who also take prescription medications.

Side effects of CBD include sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fatigue, malaise, weakness, sleeping problems, and others.[3] It does not have intoxicating effects like those caused by THC, and may have an opposing effect on disordered thinking and anxiety produced by THC.[7][10][11] CBD has been found to interact with a variety of different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors.[7][12] The mechanism of action of CBD in terms of its psychoactive and therapeutic effects is not fully clear.[7]
Marijuana is recreationally legal in nine states (and D.C.), but technically, CBD is legal in 43 states—as long as it has been derived from hemp, which contains very few traces of THC. But this also means a potentially less potent product. A 2015 study out of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, found that whole-plant CBD is superior to hemp-derived CBD for the treatment of inflammatory and anxiety conditions. Flower Power’s CBD coffee is derived from hemp and double-tested in a lab in Massachusetts to makes sure it’s THC-free. Leivent says that if he lived and worked in a state where marijuana were recreationally legal, he’d get whole-plant CBD rather than the hemp-derived stuff. “CBD from whole-plant marijuana has other chemicals in it, minute cannabinoids that work synergistically with the body to create an entourage effect,” says Leivent. “You get more of a medical effect with all of these chemicals working together rather than just one particular [hemp-based] isolate."
If you read the ingredient list, often everything in the jar is straight from mother earth. As long as that's indeed the case with the cream you have your eye on, the formula is immensely safe, chemically, says Gregory Gerdeman, Ph.D., neurophysiologist who researches cannabinoid biology and pharmacology at Eckerd College in Saint Petersburg, FL.. And since they're formulated to be topical—absorbing into the top layer of skin—and not transdermal—which would pass through the skin and into your bloodstream—there's no risk of getting high, Gerdeman explains. (P.S. Here's How Marijuana Affects Athletic Performance.)
I have a brother in law who has been diagnosed with cataplexy and narcoplexy, where he starts quivering and slowly loses control of his body and goes into a sleep, which causes him to drop to the ground with mild seizures while he is out. He lives alone (59 years old), but has smoked cannabis since he (we) were teenagers. He still smokes, and is on medication twice a day for this condition, but if he misses those meds by even half an hour, he is at risk of these seizures. The sad part is, these seizures are usually brought on by the smallest emotional change, usually tension, excitement or, the worst thing, if something he finds funny and is the least bit tickled about and starts to laugh, this process will immediately begin. Does anyone know if this kind of condition is treatable with cbd oil’s or concentrates? As I said, he smokes weed, and often grows his own, but he does it for the high and relaxation advantage, since he is basically home-bound due to this condition ending his work career about 4 years ago. Thanks for any replies. I’d be overjoyed if I could tell him there’s a possible solution to the problem other than his prescriptions. Or even if it worked WITH his meds to keep from having to live such a sedentary life.

CBD Oil Drops


CBD, or canabidiol is an amazingly useful plant compound that is extracted from the cannabis plant. With volumes of medical science now at its back, this compound has been used effectively for a wide range of needs. These particularly wide-ranging applications are the result of its being a part of the “pleiotropic sedate” group. Compounds in this group are especially unique in their ability to affect and travel along many of the typically closed atomic pathways.
I wanted to tell people here that CBD has been very effective for my anxiety, and helps with insomnia. For me, it was a cumulative effect, after a week of one dropper of oil, I can sleep very well at night. I feel like I am not polluting my body with commercial pharmaceuticals. I wish everyone here the best, and hope it works for you as well as it has for me.

Although CBD seems destined to play an important role as a therapeutic agent for a growing number of medical indications, we should seriously ask ourselves if the current unregulated production and sale of CBD oils is done responsibly. Despite the fact that CBD is mainly sold as “just” a food supplement, it is often used by severely ill people with the intention of improving their body functions in a way that their standard medication could not. This obviously puts CBD uncomfortably close to the realm of medicines. Interestingly, the WHO, based on a review of available scientific data and input from international experts, recently concluded that CBD does not immediately require rescheduling as a drug [38], although a fuller review on the risks and benefits of CBD is still being planned. Nevertheless, perhaps the use of CBD products should be assessed in a broader perspective, to cover all ingredients used in the preparation, as well as any contaminants that are already known to be common in recreational cannabis.

In addition to positively affecting the endocannabinoid system, CBD has been the focus of more than 23,000 published studies about cannabinoids in relation to various medical indications including anxiety, epilepsy, inflammation, cancer and chronic pain to name few. For a more comprehensive look at these and other studies, visit our medical research and education page.


"Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia.
For pain management, both topical and oral CBD work well, typically proving the most effective relief when utilized together. Oral CBD also assists in the diminishing of symptoms from anxiety, depression and other mental disorders, as well as insomnia. Topicals work brilliantly at reducing inflammation, arthritis, headaches, cramping and migraines, and some evidence has shown that it can also heal eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis and itching.
Hey, I’m a simple guy; I like my ice cream cold, my t-shirts tight, and my coffee alarmingly strong. With the relaxation of marijuana laws in some U.S. states, it seems an array of industries have started cashing in on the great green prize by offering CBD-infused products—which is legal almost everywhere. Moisturizer, sugar, lube, and—of course—coffee.  Not to be dramatic, but CBD coffee is a ridiculous trend that’s turning grown adults into giant throbbing knobs. Here’s why.
Based on reviews, smoking or vaporizing CBD vape oil seems to have less effects when compared to other methods of administering CBD, such as tinctures, capsules and sprays. On the flip side, others argue that smoking or vaporizing has less drawbacks than taking CBD orally, since ingesting CBD orally could result in inconsistent absorption and a delayed effect.
I LOVE my CBD pain cream. It is called “CAD” (short for Carter’s Aromatherapy Designs) cream. The downside is that it’s uber expensive ($45 to $140, for a 2 ounce jar, depending on the strength), but the little jar does seem to stretch quite a way. It smells of peppermint, not skunk. I’m currently experimenting with making my own from home-grown AC/DC. So far, I like the CAD better.
I recently discovered Après and have quickly become obsessed. I like to make sure I start my morning with protein, fiber, and fat, and their signature recipe features all of the above. Plus, it makes for a yummy and sturdier base for my favorite cold brew than just water or almond milk, my previous standbys. All of the flavors are great, but since the CBD oil I love is mint chocoate–flavored, I opt for the like-minded flavor of Après. Post-coffee and -ice, it's like a magical mint-chocolate shake that simultaneously wakes me up and calms me down. Kind of perfect, no? 
Please consult your health care provider before making any healthcare decisions or for guidance about a specific medical condition. Pure Ratios shall have no liability for any damages, loss, injury or liability whatsoever suffered as a result of your reliance on the information contained in this site. We are unable to ship Hemp Based CBD products to the following states: Alabama, Mississippi, and Missouri. 

Hey, I’m a simple guy; I like my ice cream cold, my t-shirts tight, and my coffee alarmingly strong. With the relaxation of marijuana laws in some U.S. states, it seems an array of industries have started cashing in on the great green prize by offering CBD-infused products—which is legal almost everywhere. Moisturizer, sugar, lube, and—of course—coffee.  Not to be dramatic, but CBD coffee is a ridiculous trend that’s turning grown adults into giant throbbing knobs. Here’s why.

The theoretical logic is there, Gerdeman says. What exactly is that thinking? Well, there are a few different ways CBD could help regulate pain—by increasing your natural endocannabinoids, decreasing your inflammatory response, and desensitizing your pain receptors (although it’s still unclear whether this stands when absorbed topically compared to orally).
Liquid CBD Oil/Tinctures/Extracts: Drops or tinctures should have a “suggested serving size” and the total milligrams of CBD listed on their packaging. From there, you can determine the amount of CBD you would like to ingest. Simply place the correct quantity of drops under your tongue using the dropper and hold the CBD oil in place for a minimum of 60 seconds. The 60 second hold allows for absorption via the blood vessels underneath your tongue – efficiently bypassing first-pass metabolism. Once 60 seconds has passed, swallow the CBD oil.

It’s important that you are applying the CBD topical to areas of the skin that are unaffected by other skin-care products. Making sure that you are applying your topicals to clean, product-free skin ensures that your skin is effectively absorbing the oil in its entirety. Mixing CBD oil with other products will only dilute the effects and reduce its effectiveness.
Grown and extracted from the USA, our quality CBD is fully compliant under the Kentucky Department of Agricultural Industrial Hemp Pilot Program. Our CBD products are legal and shipped to all 50 states and internationally. All of our CBD products contain 0% THC, guaranteed. We utilize a whole plant CO2 extraction that allows us to draw the CBD from the plant material and filter out unnatural substances, maximizing pure CBD concentration. Each and every product that leaves the facility is third-party tested to ensure consistency and quality.
An important factor is the quality and purity of our CBD. We chose the Kentucky farm collective because of the quality of the hemp plants being grown under the Federal Farm Bill and in conjunction with the Kentucky Agricultural Department Hemp Pilot Program. There are very specific guidelines for planting, growing and the processing of the CBD isolate. As a result, the quality of the CBD produced from the whole plant is some of the purest available. We take great pride in providing our clients with an extremely pure, clean and high-quality product to those who desire CBD. Each and every product that leaves the facility is third-party tested to ensure consistency and quality.
As an alternative health regimen, CBD holds particular appeal to women, said Gretchen Lidicker, the health editor of Mindbodygreen, a wellness website based in New York, and the author of “CBD Oil Everyday Secrets.” Noting the preponderance of female-run CBD businesses, Ms. Lidicker, 26, said that it is “no surprise that women are leading the CBD movement.”
Next up, collagen! The Après already has 13 grams of plant-based protein in it, but to give me an extra hit of endurance for a full morning and eventual workout, I like to supplement that with one or two scoops of collagen peptides. The mix is tasteless, blends smoothly, and lends extra creaminess, which I love. Plus, I've seen a marketable difference in the health of my skin, hair, and nails since regularly incorporating collagen into my diet. 
Other studies have been done in lab animals, or in vitro (meaning in a test tube, using animal brain tissue). Those studies have found anxiety-reducing effects but only at midlevel dosages, in the range of 10 to 20 mg per kg. As an example, one study found that CBD can, in rats, be an effective anti-inflammatory painkiller — at 20 mg per kg. It’s not a direct translation, but that dosage would be somewhere in the range of several hundred milligrams for an adult human.
Cannabis consumers have long prized potency (a high THC content) as one of the main factors that makes a particular strain more desirable. Though traditional demand for THC has caused an oversaturation of high-potency products, many consumers are starting to prefer less intense products that are lower in THC and higher in the non-intoxicating compound called cannabidiol (CBD).

We don’t know how CBD affects the brain in any kind of depth. We don’t know which doses and delivery methods are best for different outcomes. We don’t know how CBD interacts with most other drugs or foods. We don’t know the differences between the effects of isolates and full-spectrum preparations. We don’t even know how many cannabinoids there are. California, for what it’s worth, seems aware and concerned about this whole thing.
Multiple studies showed that CBD has properties that reduce inflammation. As such, it can be used to decrease sebum production. In other words, CBD oil might be good for your acne problem. One test-tube study showed that CBD had a noticeable effect on the sebaceous cells. When they came into contact with CBD, these cells stopped secreting any excess sebum. On top of that, CBD also lowered inflammation and stopped the so-called inflammatory cytokinesis before it manifested. Another separate study yielded similar results.
According to a growing body of research, CBD may play a role in the growth of new brain cells, a process known as neurogenesis. CBD is also widely recognized as having anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities, which make CBD a promising therapy for a wide range of conditions, from neurological disorders to autoimmune diseases to chronic pain and depression.

The fact that the maximum CBD content in an oil is limited by the THC present in the herbal material used makes it attractive to add an additional amount of purified CBD to boost the percentage advertised on the label. Unfortunately, the Novel Food Catalogue of the EU states that “extracts of Cannabis sativa L. in which CBD levels are higher than the CBD levels in the plant source are novel in food” [35]. This means that enriching a natural hemp extract with pure (often synthetic) CBD makes it a Novel Food product, with the consequence that it must undergo significant safety assessment prior to being marketed. However, it is still unclear in many EU countries if extracts with no added CBD also fall under this regime.
Naturally, scientists wanted to see if CBD had any anticancer properties. As a result, they performed several animal studies using it. However, it should be noted that the findings don’t fully apply to humans. In fact, they merely suggest what possible effects CBD might have when it comes to dealing with cancer. With that in mind, additional human studies would help conclude if CBD has an effect on cancer cells in humans.
That said, both Blessing and Carson warn that CBD should still be considered a drug, which means it can interact with other drugs. “CBD does interact with drugs that people are taking,” says Blessing. “So if you’re taking an opioid cough suppressant, or you’re taking serotonin-based medicine, like an SSRI, you can have strong drug interactions.” While most coffee shops are likely using doses too low to cause such interactions, Blessing says it’s something to be aware of. “If a coffee shop happened to have a way of making a product with a lot of CBD in it, then that could really interact with the medication this person is taking, and the effects they think are due to CBD could partly be due to that medication interaction,” she says.
This takes us to the next problem: There is no regulation around how much active CBD or THC is in each cream or how much of the compound is needed to see relief. Read: "If you have three products that say 1 percent CBD infused in coconut oil, one could be great and the other two could be crap—that's the reality of cannabis medicine right now," Gerdeman says.
The vast majority of CBD oils come in bottles measuring either 15 milliliters (mL), or 0.5 ounces; or 30 mL, or 1 ounce. However, CBD concentration is more important than bottle size. Concentration refers to the ratio of hemp oil solution (measured in mL) compared to the amount of CBD cannabinoid (measured in milligrams, or mg). A 15-mL bottle may contain 100 mg of CBD, 300 mg, 500 mg, or more. The higher the mg amount, the stronger the CBD oil will be. For this reason, the ‘mg’ measurement is also referred to as the oil’s strength; i.e., 400-mg oil might be called 400-strength oil.
The next morning, I blended the contents of the bottle up with collagen (because I add Vital Proteins to pretty much everything I drink) and took my first sip. I was immediately impressed with the taste—so creamy, dreamy, delicious, and not at all skunky. Settling into my couch with my laptop (lazy Sunday mornings are when I like to get myself organized for the upcoming work week), I continued to sip. Normally, and as it would for anyone, diving into my inbox, scanning the upcoming week's calendar, and plotting out all my upcoming to-dos sends shivers of nerves and anxiety down my spine. I love my job, but it comes with its fair share of stress. Miraculously, however, I felt calm, cool, and collected. As my fingers skipped away at lightning speed on my keyboard courtesy of that 80 milligrams of caffeine, I didn't have the usual side effect of nerves, jumps, or jitters. I felt good, and on my way home from the gym later that day, I picked up a couple more bottles of Kickback. What can I say? I was high for it. Of course, "high" not to be taken literally, as CBD—aka cannabidiol—is a non-psychoactive compound of cannabis.
Almost ten percent of people worldwide deal with acne. It’s a pretty common skin condition, even among adults. A few major factors can cause acne. Those are usually genetic makeup, bacterial infection, underlying skin inflammation, and sebum overproduction. Sebum is an oily secretion that lubricates our skin. It forms inside of sebaceous glands, which are under our skin.
These dosages are pretty standard in the consumer CBD industry and, per the research available, nowhere near the doses proven to be effective in clinical trials. NuLeaf Naturals, a prominent online CBD seller, sells 240 mg of oil for $38.50. It does not specify dosage but measures its CBD concentration in single drops; there are 100 drops per bottle, each containing 2.4 mg. You would have to take the entire bottle, according to Blessing, to get close to the absolute minimum dose that studies show might be effective for reducing anxiety. A $3 squirt of CBD oil on your ice cream or coffee? Probably right around 10 mg. You’d need 30 times that amount to get to the levels at which researchers have found stress-relieving results.
Tracking growing conditions is time-consuming. For vegans and gluten-free folks, this has gotten easier over the past couple of years, but in a budding industry that still has difficulty accepting the medicinal benefits of THC, finding out where your hemp is grown can be hard (see: phone calls, being put on hold, etc). Not only that, but there are very few growing regulations for the growing conditions of hemp, which is a red flag in itself when considering products for medical reasons.

So far, by far the best medicinal relief I have found for my symptoms is a particular strain of cannabis flower called Harlequin — it contains an almost 3:1 ratio of CBD:THC, which is extremely rare and unique in the cannabis world. There are multiple studies you can find online showing the SYNERGISTIC effects of CBD combined with THC. When they are used together, they are much more medicinally effective than either one is on their own. Most cannabis strains today have zero CBD because growers realized everyone just loves their THC, but the Harlequin strain is a god send.
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