Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[34] It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[12] Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogenetically to the cannabinoid receptors.[12] In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[35] and this action may be involved in its antidepressant,[36][37] anxiolytic,[37][38] and neuroprotective effects.[39][40] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[41] The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[8]
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is essentially a concentrated solvent extract made from cannabis flowers or leaves that is dissolved in an edible oil such as sunflower, hemp, or olive oil. Solvents used can vary from relatively innocuous organic solvents (ethanol, isopropyl alcohol) to more harmful ones (petroleum-ether, naphtha), or even supercritical fluids (butane, CO2). The exact conditions and solvents applied have a great impact on, for example, the taste, color, and viscosity of the final product. Because many other plant components are co-extracted with the desired cannabinoids present in the herbal material, these are sometimes removed by a treatment known as “winterization.” By placing the extract in a freezer (–20 to –80°C) for 24–48 h, components with a higher melting point such as waxes and triglycerides, as well as chlorophyll will precipitate, so they can be removed by filtration or centrifugation [1]. This treatment can significantly improve the taste and color of the final product.
Keep in mind that CBD levels may vary from crop to crop—even from plant to plant. However, below are some strains that have been bred to contain higher CBD levels, so they might be a good place to start. Check the map on their strain page to see if these are sold at a dispensary near you. We also recommend checking with dispensaries about the specifics of their strains’ CBD levels. It’s always a good idea to purchase only lab-tested products that clearly state the CBD/THC levels so you know what kind of experience to expect.
What makes CBD so appealing is that it’s non-intoxicating, so it won’t get you high, though it “is technically psychoactive, because it can influence things like anxiety,” Jikomes said. Although much of the marketing blitz around CBD centers on the fact that you can take it without getting stoned, there isn’t much research looking at the effects of CBD when used in isolation, with a couple of exceptions. One is the use of CBD to treat seizures: CBD is the active ingredient in the only cannabis product that the Food and Drug Administration has signed off on — a drug called Epidiolex, which is approved for treating two rare forms of epilepsy. Animal models and a few human studies suggest that CBD can help with anxiety, but those are the only conditions with much research on CBD in isolation.

When compared with the effects of caffeine, one could go out on a limb and say that CBD and caffeine are on different sides of the spectrum. Sure, they’re both anti-inflammatories, but you’re not as likely to fall asleep in your cereal after chugging a mug of coffee. You can see where I’m going with this, right? CBD coffee is a liquid contradiction.
Last year, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine released a nearly 500-page report on the health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids. A committee of 16 experts from a variety of scientific and medical fields analyzed the available evidence — more than 10,000 scientific abstracts in all. Because so few studies examine the effects of CBD on its own, the panel did not issue any findings about CBD specifically, but it did reach some conclusions about cannabis and cannabinoids more generally. The researchers determined that there is “conclusive or substantial evidence” supporting the use of cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic pain in adults, multiple sclerosis-related spasticity (a kind of stiffness and muscle spasms), and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The committee also found “moderate” evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids can reduce sleep disturbances in people with obstructive sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, chronic pain and multiple sclerosis, as well as “limited” evidence that these substances can improve symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome, increase appetite and stem weight loss in people with HIV/AIDs, and improve symptoms of PTSD and anxiety.

According to West, who says her team is “drawing on a wealth of anecdotal evidence,” CBD in your java can really take the edge off. “My colleagues, friends, and I have found that CBD-infused coffee largely does away with the anxiety and acid belly typically associated with coffee,” she says. “That makes sense, because research suggests CBD has anti-anxiety and [anti-nausea] effects. We’ve also found that compared to the coffee we reach for regularly, testers experience a less jittery, elevated burst of energy after drinking CBD-infused coffee.”

There is certainly substantial anecdotal evidence that CBD can help treat anxiety, but the scientific evidence remains very limited, says Blessing. “Probably the best evidence comes from studies on anxiety giving speeches, comparing normal subjects, and those with social anxiety disorder,” she says. “The doses that were found to reduce anxiety when someone’s giving a public speech experimentally were[approximately] 300 mg.”


Joseph Rosenblatt is a New York entrepreneur and COO of Enliven Essentials, a New York CBD-infused-product company. He helped found Enliven Essentials with his family when he discovered the astonishing benefits CBD oil could provide for close family members suffering from pain and anxiety. Rosenblatt also writes, travels, and educates people about CBD oil and the benefits it carries. He can be reached at joseph@enlivenessentials.com or through enlivenessentials.com.
Scientists have made a lot of progress in understanding how CBD produces its calming, pain-reducing, anti-inflammatory effects in the body—and there’s still more to learn. We know that CBD interacts with many different receptors, proteins, and other chemicals in the brain. These interactions create changes in the activity of neurotransmitters, hormones, and other cells throughout the brain and body. Through these interactions, CBD appears to be able to affect many of the body’s functions, from sleep-wake cycles and emotional regulation to inflammation, pain perception, and seizures.

Leafly is the world’s largest cannabis information resource, empowering people in legal cannabis markets to learn about the right products for their lifestyle and wellness needs. Our team of cannabis professionals collectively share years of experience in all corners of the market, from growing and retail, to science and medicine, to data and technology.
I am currently going through red skin syndrome/topical steroid withdrawal. The only cure as of now is time(6 months to 3 years) and waiting out horrible eczema-like flares. My main issue is burning/tingling skin that is almost constant. Steroids close off blood vessels and when you stop them they 'wake' up causing this nerve discomfort/pain. I've been smoking medical cannabis for the duration of my recovery(1.5 years) and It's done wonders except that the flare is around my mouth and I'm afraid the smoking is causing more issues.. as well as helping. I need to step up my game and take a different approach. I am wondering how to go about using cbd but I don't know where to start and was wondering if you could help. Thank you

Larilyn, Great question. Most CBD oils are hemp-derived, which, by definition, means they generally contain 0.3 percent THC. That being said, there is no way to guarantee that a person will pass a UA screening due to variables within that persons composition & other influences. Some people will turn to a isolate version zero percent THC of CBD for this reason but in doing so will not reap the benefits of full spectrum. I prefer the option of Enterouge oil for these candidates.

The truth is that no one knows precisely what any of these molecules are doing to us. It is a case of finding the effects first and working backwards to understand the mechanisms. “There are a number of possible transmitter systems that CBD could act on,” says McGuire. “And it’s not 100% clear which ones are critical for anxiety, or psychosis or schizophrenia. But [the antipsychotic effect] is a different mechanism from existing treatments, which is a big deal because existing treatments aren’t working.”

Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a natural phyto-cannabinoid (or plant-based chemical compound) found in cannabis plants, including hemp and marijuana. Unlike other cannabinoids — namely tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC — CBD does not produce any psychoactive effects, and will actually counteract these effects to a degree. CBD will induce feelings of sleepiness; for this reason, it can be an effective soporific for people who struggle to fall and/or remain asleep due to insomnia and other sleep disorders.
Hi, I have had spondylolisthesis since age 11 which left me with extreme nerve pain...restless leg syndrome. Had 3 spinal ops and also had hip surgery 2 years ago. have asthma and hypothyroidism. I can deal with everything else but this nerve pain is insane. Used Gabapentin for 9 years and now its not in the market in Nairobi, Kenya where I live. Am on Lyrica, which is not working. I started Cbd oil in August but now found my body has become immune to the effects of pain releif I was getting. Can anyone suggest what strength oil/cbd supplement I should aim for? Currently am making flapjacks with weed, have one every night but this makes me high which I dont want. I still wake up in pain at night, please help.
Although a range of analytical methods have been published in recent years [48], there is no general agreement on which analytical method is most suitable and accurate. Additionally, there are currently no generally accepted guidelines or certifications to determine the qualifications of cannabis labs. As a result, cannabinoid analysis can differ significantly between labs [49], even when the exact same sample is analyzed multiple times [50]. This not only poses a risk to consumers (who do not know how trust the label on their product) but may also lead to business-to-business conflicts about the quality or value of intermediate products. Additionally, inaccurate analytical results may lead to legal problems if the THC content of a CBD product unexpectedly turns out to be higher than the maximally allowed limit. It seems clear that a better agreement on the conditions for lab testing of cannabinoids is urgently needed.
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is essentially a concentrated solvent extract made from cannabis flowers or leaves that is dissolved in an edible oil such as sunflower, hemp, or olive oil. Solvents used can vary from relatively innocuous organic solvents (ethanol, isopropyl alcohol) to more harmful ones (petroleum-ether, naphtha), or even supercritical fluids (butane, CO2). The exact conditions and solvents applied have a great impact on, for example, the taste, color, and viscosity of the final product. Because many other plant components are co-extracted with the desired cannabinoids present in the herbal material, these are sometimes removed by a treatment known as “winterization.” By placing the extract in a freezer (–20 to –80°C) for 24–48 h, components with a higher melting point such as waxes and triglycerides, as well as chlorophyll will precipitate, so they can be removed by filtration or centrifugation [1]. This treatment can significantly improve the taste and color of the final product.
The CBD I take comes from hemp grown in Austria on a 100 year old farm, organic Co2 extracted and triple purified! Being a horticulturist it was important to me to find a product that was free of molds and toxins. Cannabis plants are Bio inhibitors. This means they take it all in, nutrients, toxins(pesticides), mold and metals into the plant. Also Co2 extraction is cleaner then butane, propane and kosher alchohol I would suppose. CBD has changed lives for many people! Go to ECHO Connection.org and find the research and life changing stories. I have my own story!
Industrial Hemp Oil is also from the Cannabis Sativa plant and is the same as Hemp Oil or Hemp Seed OIl. Compared to cannabis Indica, cannabis Sativa (industrial hemp variety) has a much stronger fiber. This fiber can be used in anything from rope and blankets to paper. Marijuana fiber has a low tensile strength and will break or shred easily, making it a poor fibrous plant when compared to industrial hemp. Industrial hemp has low THC levels compared to marijuana specifically cultivated for personal psychoactive use. The reason for the low THC content in hemp is that most THC is formed in resin glands on the buds and flowers of the female cannabis plant. Industrial hemp is not cultivated to produce buds, and therefore lacks the primary component that forms the marijuana high. Furthermore, industrial hemp has higher concentrations of a chemical called Cannabidiol (C B D). 
×